GALAXY study page
i am presenting 4 galaxies in this lesson (photos below) there is one regular spiral and 3 "barred" galaxies whose nuclei are in the form of an extended "bar" ... take a ruler and measure the symmetry in each galaxy ... find star density clusters OR lack of stars in the spiral arms (or any other feature such as a stretched or out of shape arm etc) and measure exactly across the center (nucleus) to the opposite arm ... this is best done with a clear plastic sheet with one edge marked in millimeter tick marks so you can see through it ... mark a center point along one edge of the clear sheet and mark in both directions with millimeter tick marks ... put the center point on top of the galactic nucleus (center point) and this will allow you to measure equally in diametrically opposite directions ... for a quick measurement you can use your fingers just to get started (measure out from the center then shift your fingers without changing the measurement to the opposite side of the galaxy) ... your goal is to arrive statistically at a result ... if the symmetry holds put a 1 (e.g. if the star density or lack thereof etc is exactly the same on the opposite side of the galactic nucleus) ... if the symmetry is above average put a 2 ... if the symmetry is exceptional put a 3 ... if the symmetry rule does not hold put a 0 ... then plot the results on a graph as follows showing how many 0's, 1's, 2's and 3's you have discovered ... do for each galaxy separately and then combine your results (in the end you will have 4 individual charts and one combined chart) ... there is no rule for how many data points you should chart ... have you determined statistically that galaxies in this small sample are "symmetrical" ... if you looked at LOTs of galaxies like i have you would have to come to the conclusion that there is a basic fundamental property of galactic formation that requires the model to account for symmetry as a basic property and not some haphazard random fluke of a few galaxies ... next read my peer reviewed published paper from 1980 "Continuing Galactic Formation" which is reprinted in the appendix of my Planet X Comets and Earth Changes book (available in both hard cover and eBook format) ... you will start to learn one aspect of my early studies which leads to the formation of solar systems (individual stars with planets) by CAPTURE ... ask yourself ... how did the material (stars gaps clusters stretched regions multiple arms etc etc etc) in the galaxies which contain billions of stars like our own sun ... how did they know to form exactly the same on one side as in the opposite arm that may be tens of thousands of light years away ??? when you read my galactic formation article you will understand how this works ... MORE TO COME (hint on the measurement below ... do not count stars that are in the foreground they appear as bright white stars) ... an additional note .. in my published paper you will find some relatively subtle complex mathematics ... it was the first time anyone was able to integrate the orbits of stars in a galaxy to give a final result over all time ... a mathematical result that no one had ever accomplished before so there is a LOT more to the article than simply determining galaxy symmetries ... more on that later as you have to progress in steps ... jim mccanney (in a future installment i will present what are known as Warped Galaxies and explain them with the same model)
the following is a sample of how your data should look ... you could also create a bar chart or other form to represent your "symmetry data"
number of symmetries 2 5 21 35
sample of your data ---|---|---|---|-------------------
symmetry value 0 1 2 3
3 sample spiral galaxies PLUS a bonus 4th one ...
note on the galaxy above there is a small companion galaxy ... note the distortion in the arm closest to the small companion that draws it outwards and out of symmetry with the opposite arm and also note that the longest arm that stretches over the top of the galaxy is drawn completely into the small developing galaxy and consumed ... since these are known distortions with a known cause they do not count as 0's (non-symmetries) in your data ... in fact this will be important in understanding that the "density wave" theory of galactic formation is not true as galaxy interactions destroy symmetry of galaxies and do not "create" galaxies
this is a sample of the kind of work i am posting so you can learn and follow the path of learning that i created throughout my career ... return for more ... lots more ... jim mccanney
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